The Sillery “reduction” and Pachirini’s fief: first reserves for christian Indigenous

In 1637, missionaries of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits, found a mission outside the village of Kébec. The Jesuits choose an important site for the First Nations, known as Kamisk8a 8angachitthe eel tip and the place to fish (known as Sillery).

Initially, the reduction of Sillery is called the St. Joseph Mission (not to be confused with its namesake created in 1680 in the Country of the Illinois Nation). The goal is sedentarization, conversion to Catholicism, and the education of the neighboring First Nations – Innu Nations, Atikamekw, Algonquin, the Wendat Nation, and even some converts from the Mohawk and Abenaki Nation. At the same time, unions between Nations, including that of the Settlers, are encouraged by missionaries because this type of union

will oblige all savages to love the French as their brothers. They testify to wish it with passion, for they never have more satisfaction with our speeches when we promise them that we will take their daughters in marriage, for after that there is a thousand applause. They tell us that when we do this marriage, they will hold us as their nation, considering the descent and kinship of families by their wives and not by men, all the more so, say he, that we know that the mother of the child, but not sternly who is the father.

At first, the Jesuits think that

These marriages can not produce any bad inconvenience, for never will savage wives seduce their husbands to live miserable in the woods, as do the peoples of New France, and the children who will be born of these marriages may be none other than Christians, nourished and raise up among the French and in their dwelling, besides that there is no appearance, in the docility of this people who is not warned of any other religion, that the married woman can not easily be solved. to follow the religion of her husband, in which, when she considers only the diversity of life, she will embrace a life of angels instead of the misery of other savage women

In the first decade, the mission was renamed in honor of Noël BRÛLARD de Sillery, a Frenchman turned Jesuit who donated his property to establish a mission to evangelize the First Nations of New France. Houses, a chapel, a mill and a bastioned enclosure are built there.

Thanks to the Sillery Register, which contains marriages and baptisms, the list of residents of 1666 and the Confession and Enumeration of 1678, we can see the acts of some 400 men, women and children who lived at the Mission.


The Sillery Register reflects the “Pan-Indigenous” role of Sillery’s mission. Representatives of several Nations visit or stay there: in addition to Montagnais and Algonquins of the beginning, there are Attikameks, Hurons, Nipissiriens, Abenaki, Socoquis, etc., who come to learn about the faith. . The presence or stay in Sillery of great figures of the Amerindian world like Noël Negabamat / Tekouerimat, Makheabichigiou, Pigarouich and Tgondatsa, confirm the role played by Sillery in Amerindian relations. Originally intended for the Algonquins and Montagnais, Sillery then welcomed the Abenaki, whose presence is reported from 1676 to 1688. This is the densest period of the register for the frequency of baptisms. In fact, most of the Aboriginal baptisms attributed to Sillery (1,099 out of 1,716, or 64%)

At birth, the child receives a Native American name of his own; at baptism, we give him a Christian name. Amerindians have no surnames and it is exceptional that the child has the same name as his father. Some
many Amerindians have inherited French nicknames, indicated in French in the Latin text: L’Arquebuze, Le Marchant, Castillon, Compere Colas, the great Jacques, etc.

From 1687, and for non-obvious reasons, the Pan-Indigenous families, now fluent in the French language, leave Sillery and the mission is abandoned.

At the same time, the Pan-Indigenous families of the late Charles PACHIRINI, Sachem of the Makwag clan of the WESKARINI Nation (nicknamed the Little Mission), leave the Montmagny Fief near the Tapiskwan River (known as the Saint-Maurice) where these Christian First Nations settled.

Trois Rivieres

From 1690 onward, we begin to find the families from these two sites at the Seigneury of the ile Dupas-et-du-Chicot, which Charles Aubert de la Chesnaye had conceded to Louis DANDONNEAU and his brother-in-law Jacques BRISSET. The site, which consists of a network of islands upstream of Lake Nebesek (also known as Angouleme and Saint-Pierre), had never been inhabited continuously before. The archipelago was a fishing and hunting area used by many neighboring First Nations.

In 1699, both Sillery and Pachirini’s fief were removed from the “Savages” and handed over to the Jesuits. The document indicates that the “Indians” had abandoned the sites near the Jesuit lands. The document was made between Hector de CALLIÈRES and the Jesuits, without any participation or consent of any First Nations representative or their descendants.

Further research is needed to examine the impacts of this legal document on the land claims of First Nations and Metis descendants who had their rights revoked in these territories.


Pierre de SESMAISONS, Raisons qui peuvent induire Sa Saincteté à permettre aux François qui habitent la Nouvelle-France d’espouser dez filles sauvages, quoyque non baptisées ny mesmes encorre beaucoup instruictes à la foy chrestienne [avant 1635] MNFIII

Léo-Paul HÉBERT, Évangéliser les Amérindiens : Le vieux Registre de Sillery (1638-1688) Je me souviens… Numéro 31, automne 1992 URI :

Jean COURNOYER, La Mémoire du Québec, de 1534 à nos jours, Stanké 2001



#Métis Ruling: So now what?

Yesterday was the Supreme Court Ruling about giving Thanks and acknowledgement to the people who sacrificed so much to get to the highest court in the land. For a plain language interpretation of the ruling, my friend Dr. Sébastien Malette, who helped the Métis Federation of Canada prepare their Factum for the cause, has taken the time to explain to me what the ruling means. Click here to see his take on it.

Today and henceforth, the hard work begins.

So now what?

This is where the Nation – or Community – comes to play.

Metis ruling

Nations AND CommunitiesPlural.

I refuse to wallow in negativity – it’s standing room only in there already. I have no desire , claim to fame or recognition because it’s not even close to being part of my wheelhouse. Notice: no PayPal button anywhere on my blog.

My community is Nitaskinan. My ties are tied to the land of my Indigenous ancestors. The home and hearth of my many First Nations ggggrandmothers. The Settler construct of ownership is not part of my wheelhouse either.

Treaty Métis (Otipemsiwak?) needs are different than Unceded-Land Métis (Abitawisiwak?). Even though some of us have indeed kinship connections, the land which claims us is as different as the harvest she gives to nourish us.

My community sits on Atikamekw land for which a Comprehensive Land Claim and Self-Government Negotiations currently being negotiated with Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.

My community may need to re-learn our Oral History. My community may need healing. My community may need Economic Development.

Settlers living on Atikamekw Land need Truth, Humility, Honesty, Wisdom, Respect, Courage and Love and implement all 94 Calls to Action of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

My community will need to rekindle our kinship with the Atikamekw Nation and help our Community as Stewards of Nitaskinan.

Kwei. Qallunette nit icinikason!  Nitaskinan ni otcin. Ni mireriten!


La question: Aaniin odoodemaayan?


Aaniin odoodemaayan?

Je ne peux pas répondre à cette question. Je sent parfois comme si la réponse m’a été volée. Mais je continue à la chercher.

Le nom d’origine de la rivière St-Maurice était “Métabéroutin”, nom Algonquin qui signifie “décharge du vent”; la Nation Atikameks de Haute-Mauricie la nomme toujours “Tapiskwan Sipi”, la “rivière de l’aiguille filée”.La Nation Abénaquis la nomme “Madôbaladenitekw” ou la “rivière qui se termine”.

Une rivière. Plusieurs noms. Des noms qui veulent dire quelque chose, qui informent du terrain. Des noms Autochtones.

En cherchant ma généalogie matriarchale, beaucoup de mes ancêtres “apparaissent” de nulle part. Des irrégularités d’orthographe dans les registres de l’Église, des entrées manquantes, des espaces vides. Pleins de culs-de-sac.

État et l’Église; Église et l’État. Travaillant ensemble en étroite collaboration aussitôt les Jésuites remplacés par les Sulpiciens en tant que curatelle des registres de Kebec / Nouvelle-France / Bas-Canada / Canada-Est / Québec. La Société Notre-Dame de Montréal, fondée par De la Dauversière , avait pour but de convertir et civiliser les Peuples Autochtones, suite aux directives du Roi Louis XIV et la dissolution de la Compagnie des Cent-Associés de la Nouvelle-France.  

Séminaire Saint-Sulpice, Tiohtià: ke.

Comment pourraient-ils civiliser mes ancêtres?

Traduire leurs noms, il semble. Les * Franciser *, peut-être?

En lisant les “Relations des Jésuites” (1632-1673),  on peut conclure que Lallemont, LeJeune, Bréboeuf et autres ont fait une tentative d’enregistrer les noms sous la forme écrite plus proche possible. On peut reconnaître les protagonistes communs des différents auteurs même si l’orthographe diffère.

Par exemple, Noël Negabamat, Tekouerimat, Tek8erimat était un guide constant des premiers Jésuites. Plus tôt dénommé Noël Negabamat, Père LeJeune a veillé expliquer son changement de nom qui refléta son ascendant au rôle de capitaine de sa communauté. Ironie du sort, capitaine dechasse est le terme également utilisé par les Métis Otipemsiwak des Prairies.

Comme nous pouvons constater dans la correspondance plus tard, Capitaine Noël Negabamat Tekouerimat pouvait converser en français et en anglais – après avoir passé du temps avec les Anglais dans la terre des Abénakis:


Correspondance entre Noël Negabamat Tekouerimat, Capitaine Chrétien, à Père LeJeune en France, Relations des Jésuites, 1654.

Qu’en est- il de *l’autre* Noël? Mon ancêtre Noël Langlois?

Enregistré en tant que Pilote (capitaine) du Fleuve Saint-Laurent et pêcheur. Dont l’ identité est vivement débattue, mais dont la généalogie est bien documentée. Dont les descendants vivent sur la terre Atikamekw de Nitaskinan que les colons appellent Lanaudière et Mauricie?

Un autre de mes ancêtres et l’ancêtre de nombreux Voyageurs, Hivernants et de Métis Otipemsiwak.

C’est peut-être seulement qu’une coïncidence que ces 2 Noël du même âge vivaient côte à côte à Kamiskoua-Ouangachi – la Mission de Sillery. un Chef chrétien Autochtone et un Colon. L’un capitaine et pêcheur – l’autre un pilote et pêcheur.

Regardons d’autres noms Autochtones qui ont été francisé par les missionnaires sulpiciens: